For the first time, a team of researchers from Chinese company Sinobaek has successfully tested the Corona19 vaccine using primates. The picture shows a red-haired monkey (Lesser’s Macak), the same species used in the experiment. Courtesy of Wikimedia

While the new coronavirus infection (COVID-19 corona19) situation is prolonged, basic research in the fields of science and medicine related to treatment and prevention is also speeding up. Behind the studies, which covered a variety of topics, from sarscoronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) structure to patient case reporting, there are hidden trusts that have supported them. It is a supercomputer that supports complex data calculations on behalf of hundreds of scientists, as well as experimental animals dedicated to supporting the development of safe vaccines and therapeutics. The first primate model developed with domestic technology entered the first therapeutic experiment this week. Supercomputers operated by domestic research institutes have also been supported by Corona 19 researchers.

●Success in the development of corona 19 primate model with domestic technology… Get into therapeutic experiments

Animal testing is the first step in confirming the effectiveness of the drug and vaccine in vivo. Animals that exhibit similar viral infections and symptoms are subjected to humans. Non-human primates are considered to be the most important contributors to the fact that they are the closest animals to humans. Red-haired monkeys are widely used.

In March, according to the National Institutes of Health (NIH) National Institutes of Infectious Diseases (NIAID), the monkey was infected with Corona 19 and remained ill for about 8-16 days. Monkeys do not develop as severe as humans, but many viruses are detected in the nose and throat, and symptoms such as pulmonary infiltration is formed are similar to humans. The researchers concluded that “it can be used as a model for studying corona 19 infected animals with mild or moderate symptoms in humans.”

Last month, Chinese biotech company Sinobaek conducted animal tests on eight red-haired monkeys to verify the effectiveness of its own vaccines. Remdesivir, who is known as a therapeutic agent, also underwent animal testing using red-haired monkeys in the middle of last month.

In Korea, the Korea Institute of Biotechnology and infectious disease research center recently developed two types of analysis models using red-haired monkeys that are infected with corona 19 and show symptoms. Earlier this month, these monkeys went into their first experiment scan for therapeutic candidates at a korean company. Ryu Chung-min, director of the Center for Infectious Diseases research, said on July 7, “Primate models with even mild and moderate symptoms are not uncommon in the world,” and “the development period was reduced by one-third to one-third of the usual two-thirds of the time in two months, even after all the complex procedures considering the ethics of experimental animals in the Biosafety Class 3 (BSL3) facility.” Liu said, “We have selected a number of companies and will be experimenting with everything from cures to vaccines.”

The Jackson Institute of Nonprofit Medicine in the United States has frozen sperm and embryos from corona 19-infected genetically modified mice developed in 2007. Recently, the institute began to multiply the mouse and supply it for the Corona 19 experiment. Courtesy of Jackson Institute

●Corona 19 study made in mice making proteins similar to humans

Rats that play an important role in life science research are also active in the development of therapeutics and vaccines. Rats could not be used in infection experiments immediately different from the ace2 protein of the surface ace2 protein that plays an important role when the virus is infected with epithelial cells of the human body. However, in 2003, in the wake of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS,SAS), a team of researchers at the University of Iowa in the United States developed mice with ACE2 in humans and are also being used in infection research. The Jackson Institute of Medicine, an American medical laboratory that stores the mice’ embryos and sperm, has recently rediscovered this genetically modified mouse and produced it through artificial insemination.

In Korea, the National Mouse Phenotype Analysis Group has ace2 protein for a pre-clinical trial of therapeutic and vaccine development and develops a genetically modified mouse that causes lung lesions. Sung Je-kyung, director of the National Mouse Expression Analysis Project, said, “We are excavating five corona 19 infected mice in consideration of the virus mutation situation, and if we give birth to the first baby in May-June, it will likely be available to research institutes by August.”

Hamsters and ferrets are also attracting new attention in the wake of the Corona 19 incident. Hamsters have the advantage that ace2 protein is closer to humans than rats, and ferrets are widely used in influenza research and the physiology of the lungs is similar to humans.

●Protein structure research, supercomputer to help detect therapeutic compound candidates

If the animals sacrifice their bodies to ensure vaccine and therapeutic efficacy and stability, supercomputers are responsible for the initial process of developing corona 19 therapeutics. A lot of calculations are needed to uncover the structure of viral proteins and determine how they bind with various candidates. Because individual researchers cannot secure these computers, institutions with high-performance computers provide free time to use computers.

Brookhaven National Laboratory, under the U.S. Department of Energy, is using its own supercomputer to support research into the structure of the Corona 19 virus or therapeutic agent. Various research institutes, companies, and universities have formed a variety of consortiums to help with corona19 research. Courtesy of Brookhaven National Laboratory

With the outbreak of super-oil infections worldwide, supercomputer-based laboratories have begun to solve this problem. The Open Science Grid (OSG) Consortium, which provides computer computing resources to support scientific research, is representative. Originally, the European Particle Physics Laboratory (CERN) was born to process the massive particle physics collision test data produced by the large-scale particle collision rheiner (LHC), in addition to particle physics supports research such as structural biology.

In addition to the LHC team, more than 70 institutions are participating, including national laboratories and universities in the United States. In the event of corona 19, we provide calculation time for basic research. Three projects are currently being supported, including “Folding at Home,” a voluntary citizen science project that reveals the three-dimensional structure of viral proteins and genetic materials (RNA).

The Corona19 High Performance Computing (HPC) Consortium, a coalition of 37 organizations, including IBM, Amazon Web Services, Nvidia, google cloud, and 7 national laboratories and universities in the United States, has also supported 41 corona 19-related structural research, including protein structure analysis. In Korea, the Korea Institute of Science and Technology Information (KISTI) provides the supercomputer No. 5 “Nurion” free of charge. Small and medium-sized businesses and corona19 therapeutic and vaccine development researchers are receiving applications without a time limit.

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